Context: ISRO will launch its Chandrayaan 3 mission on July 14, 2023 onboard an LVM­3. About LVM-3
  • The Launch Vehicle Mark-III or LVM3, is a three-stage medium-lift launch vehicle developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
  • Previously known as the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) Mark–III
  • Developed by: Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre of ISRO
  • Payload capacity: LVM3 will be capable of placing
    • 4 tonne class satellites of the GSAT series into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbits.
    • 8 tonne heavy payloads into Low Earth Orbits of 600 km altitude.
Stages of LVM­3:
  • First (or bottom most) Stage:
    • It has two S200 boosters strapped to the sides of the rocket body.
    • Fuel used: Solid fuel called hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene.
  • Second Stage:
    • It is powered by two Vikas engines
    • Fuel used: liquid fuel – either nitrogen tetroxide or unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine.
  • Uppermost Final Stage:
    • It is powered by a cryogenic engine.
    • It combusts liquefied hydrogen with liquefied oxygen.
    • Hydrogen has a very high specific impulse as rocket fuels go, but using it in an engine requires it to be liquefied first.
    • Liquified hydrogen must be stored at very low temperature, and with special pumping and transport systems.
Launch Orbit      Polar orbit & GTO.     GEO & GSO. LEO, sun synchronous orbit
Number of stages   4.     3   3
Payload capacity 1800kg 2200-4000kg 500 kg
Propulsion Solid & liquid Solid, liquid, cryogenic Solid
Application Earth resources monitoring Launch of communication satellites To launch Nano, Micro and Mini satellite
 News Source: WION

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