India recorded all-time high of 93% DPT3 immunization coverage in 2022: WHO

Context:  The projections for national immunization coverage for 2022 from WHO and UNICEF have recently been made public. Key Highlights:  Inclusion in India: 
  • Current status: In 2022, India had 93 percent of its 22.5 million babies covered, against surpassing the previous pre-pandemic best of 91% recorded in 2019, from the 85% recorded in 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO).
  • Protection: A group of combination vaccines known as DPT protects against the three human infectious illnesses diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus.
  • Doses: For kids under the age of 7, this vaccination is given to them in three doses.
  • Benchmark in evaluation: When evaluating how well nations are doing at providing children with normal immunization services, the coverage of this vaccine is frequently employed.
About Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus (DPT)-
  • Diphtheria: It is a serious infection caused by strains of bacteria called Corynebacterium diphtheriae that make a toxin.
    • Mode of spread: The bacteria spread from person to person, usually through respiratory droplets, like from coughing or sneezing. People can also get sick from touching infected open sores or ulcers.
  • Pertussis: Whooping cough, also known as pertussis, is a very contagious respiratory illness caused by a type of bacteria called Bordetella pertussis.
    • Mode of Spread: The bacteria that cause whooping cough spread easily from person to person through the air. When a person who has whooping cough sneezes or coughs, they can release small particles with the bacteria in them.
  • Tetanus: Tetanus is an infection caused by a bacterium called Clostridium tetani. Spores of tetanus bacteria are everywhere in the environment, including soil, dust, and manure. The spores develop into bacteria when they enter the body.
    • Mode of Spread: Unlike other vaccine-preventable diseases, tetanus is not spread from person to person. The spores can get into someone’s body through broken skin, usually through injuries.
Universal Immunization Programme
  • Genesis: In 1978, the Expanded Programme on Immunisation was introduced. When its reach was extended outside of metropolitan areas in 1985, it was redesignated as the Universal Immunisation Programme.
  • Vaccines covered: Under UIP, immunization is being provided free of cost against 12 vaccine preventable diseases: Nationally against 11 diseases: Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio, Measles, Rubella, severe form of Childhood Tuberculosis, Rotavirus diarrhea, Hepatitis B, Meningitis & Pneumonia caused by Hemophilus Influenza type B and Pneumococcal Pneumonia and sub-nationally against 1 disease – Japanese Encephalitis (JE vaccine is provided only in endemic districts).
 
World Health Organization (WHO)  Formation: 7 April 1948 Type:         United Nations specialized agency Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland Parent organization: United Nations Economic and Social Council Mandate: to promote health and safety while helping the vulnerable worldwide.
 
United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF)  Formation: 11 December 1946 Headquarters: New York City, New York, U.S. Parent organization: United Nations General Assembly Mandate: to advocate for the protection of children’s rights, to help meet their basic needs and to expand their opportunities to reach their full potential.
 News Source: The Hindu

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