Jal Jeevan Mission
Context: A recent research project conducted by IIM-Bangalore, with technical assistance from the International Labour Organization (ILO), has performed an extensive examination of the employment generation prospects of the Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM). More on News:
Challenges Impeding the 2024 Har Ghar Jal Goal Goal:
- The estimated generation of 2.82 crore person-year employment includes 59.93 lakh person-year of direct employment during the construction phase of JJM.
- An additional 2.22 crore person-year of indirect employment was generated through manpower engaged in production of the materials such as pipes, valves, pumps etc.
- Almost 40% of the direct employment created is i.e., 23.8 lakh person-year, is estimated to be on account of engagement of engineers, managers, plumbers, electricians, motor mechanics and chemists etc.
- Jal Jeevan Mission was launched in 2019 with the aim to provide all rural households 55 liters per capita per day to every rural household by 2024.
- Nodal Ministry: Ministry of Jal Shakti.
- Budget: The estimated outlay of the mission is Rs 3.60 Lakh Crore with Central and State share of Rs. 2.08 Lakh Crore and Rs.1.52 Lakh Crore respectively.
- Rising Water Demand: India is among the top-10 water-rich countries in the world, with access to about 4% of the world’s water resources.
- India’s rapid population expansion, urbanization, and rising living standards have resulted in high water demand throughout the country.
- Reducing Burden on Women: Lack of convenient water supply burdens women and girls, who spend significant time collecting water.
- The Jal Jeevan Mission aims to relieve this and promote gender equality through functional tap connections.
- Countering Water-Borne Diseases: Ensuring safe and clean drinking water is crucial to combat waterborne diseases.
- Linking WASH with SDGs: Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) are integral to achieving several Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
- The Jal Jeevan Mission’s efforts align with the global goal of providing universal access to safe and affordable drinking water and improved sanitation by 2030.
- As per the NITI Aayog’s Composite Water Management Index (CWMI) 2018: According to it, 21 Indian cities could face Day Zero in the coming years.
- Day Zero refers to the day when a place is likely to have no drinking water of its own. Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi and Hyderabad are among the most susceptible.
- Impact on Child Nutrition: Lack of safe water contributes to malnutrition in children, leading to stunting and wasting.
- The Jal Jeevan Mission’s focus on clean water supply directly contributes to improving child nutrition and health outcomes.
- Bottom-up approach: JJM is being implemented as a decentralized, demand-driven community-managed programme.
- For Example: More than 5.24 lakh Paani Samitis/ Village Water and Sanitation Committees (VWSC) have been formed to manage, operate, and maintain in-village water supply infrastructure.
- It envisions providing safe and adequate drinking water through individual household tap connections by 2024 to all households in rural India.
- To provide Functional Household Tap Connection (FHTC) to every rural household
- To prioritize provision of FHTCs in quality affected areas, villages in drought prone and desert areas, Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY) villages, etc.
- To monitor functionality of tap connections
- Funding Pattern:
|State/ Union Territory||Central Share in %||State Share in %|
|Himalayan and North Eastern States||90||10|
|Union Territories with Legislature||90||10|
|Union Territories without Legislature||100||–|
- Institutional Mechanism for the implementation of JJM:
|i.||National level||National Jal Jeevan Mission (NJJM)||
|ii.||State level||State Water and Sanitation Mission (SWSM)||
|iii.||District Level||District Water and Sanitation Mission (DWSM)||
|iv.||Gram Panchayat level||Paani Samiti/Village Water & Sanitation Committee (VWSC)/ User group||
- Russia-Ukraine war: It resulted in “major shortages of steel and cement, critical to the manufacture and connection of metal pipes”.
- Lack of Skilled Manpower: The lack of skilled manpower to make acceptable quality tanks, cisterns and water connections is also a major issue.
- Caste Based Discrimination: A research study by the National Dalit Watch titled, “Droughts, Dalits and Adivasis”, in 2022 surveyed Marathwada’s 2,207 Dalits and Adivasis of 10 villages of Osmanabad and Kallam blocks.
- The study found that 72% did not have adequate water for drinking and hygiene, while 56% SCs and 48% STs reported experiencing untouchability.
- Poor Water Quality: Local reports suggest that despite having a tap connection, several village households revert to their local groundwater resources as the quality of supplied tap water is inadequate.
- Infrastructure and Connectivity: Many rural areas lack proper infrastructure and connectivity, making it challenging to establish functional household tap connections (FHTCs) for water supply.
- Technical Expertise: Implementing modern water supply technologies requires skilled personnel, and there can be a shortage of technical expertise at the local level.
- Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs): Explore opportunities for PPPs to leverage private sector expertise and resources for efficient implementation and maintenance of water supply systems.
- Financial Sustainability: Develop a sustainable financing model that combines government funding, community contributions, user fees, and other revenue sources to ensure the ongoing operation and maintenance of water supply infrastructure.
- Institutional Strengthening: Strengthen local governance institutions responsible for water supply management, ensuring their capacity to plan, implement, and manage systems effectively.
|Jal Jeevan Mission (Urban):