Jal Jeevan Mission

Context: A recent research project conducted by IIM-Bangalore, with technical assistance from the International Labour Organization (ILO), has performed an extensive examination of the employment generation prospects of the Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM). More on News:
  • The estimated generation of 2.82 crore person-year employment includes 59.93 lakh person-year of direct employment during the construction phase of JJM.
  • An additional 2.22 crore person-year of indirect employment was generated through manpower engaged in production of the materials such as pipes, valves, pumps etc.
  • Almost 40% of the direct employment created is i.e., 23.8 lakh person-year, is estimated to be on account of engagement of engineers, managers, plumbers, electricians, motor mechanics and chemists etc.
About Jal Jeevan Mission: 
  • Jal Jeevan Mission was launched in 2019 with the aim to provide all rural households 55 liters per capita per day to every rural household by 2024.
  • Nodal Ministry: Ministry of Jal Shakti.
  • Budget: The estimated outlay of the mission is Rs 3.60 Lakh Crore with Central and State share of Rs. 2.08 Lakh Crore and Rs.1.52 Lakh Crore respectively.
Need of Jal Jeevan Mission:
  • Rising Water Demand: India is among the top-10 water-rich countries in the world, with access to about 4% of the world’s water resources.
    • India’s rapid population expansion, urbanization, and rising living standards have resulted in high water demand throughout the country.
  • Reducing Burden on Women: Lack of convenient water supply burdens women and girls, who spend significant time collecting water.
    • The Jal Jeevan Mission aims to relieve this and promote gender equality through functional tap connections.
  • Countering Water-Borne Diseases: Ensuring safe and clean drinking water is crucial to combat waterborne diseases.
  • Linking WASH with SDGs: Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) are integral to achieving several Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
    • The Jal Jeevan Mission’s efforts align with the global goal of providing universal access to safe and affordable drinking water and improved sanitation by 2030.
  • As per the NITI Aayog’s Composite Water Management Index (CWMI) 2018: According to it, 21 Indian cities could face Day Zero in the coming years.
    • Day Zero refers to the day when a place is likely to have no drinking water of its own. Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi and Hyderabad are among the most susceptible.
  • Impact on Child Nutrition: Lack of safe water contributes to malnutrition in children, leading to stunting and wasting.
    • The Jal Jeevan Mission’s focus on clean water supply directly contributes to improving child nutrition and health outcomes.
Key Features of JJM:
  • Bottom-up approach: JJM is being implemented as a decentralized, demand-driven community-managed programme.
    • For Example: More than 5.24 lakh Paani Samitis/ Village Water and Sanitation Committees (VWSC) have been formed to manage, operate, and maintain in-village water supply infrastructure.
  • It envisions providing safe and adequate drinking water through individual household tap connections by 2024 to all households in rural India.
  • Objectives:
    • To provide Functional Household Tap Connection (FHTC) to every rural household
    • To prioritize provision of FHTCs in quality affected areas, villages in drought prone and desert areas, Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY) villages, etc.
    • To monitor functionality of tap connections
  • Funding Pattern:
State/ Union Territory  Central Share in %  State Share in %
Himalayan and North Eastern States  90 10
Other States 50 50
Union Territories with Legislature 90 10
Union Territories without Legislature  100
  • Institutional Mechanism for the implementation of JJM:
  Tier Mission Role
        i. National level National Jal Jeevan Mission (NJJM)
  • Headed by a senior officer with a directorate, NJJM will provide policy guidance, financial assistance and technical support to states.
      ii.              State level State Water and Sanitation Mission (SWSM)
  • SWSM would be responsible for coordination, convergence and policy guidance at the state level.
      iii. District Level District Water and Sanitation Mission (DWSM)
  • Headed by Deputy Commissioner/District Collector, DWSM will ensure preparation of village action plan; finalize a district action plan; provide administrative approval of in-village water supply schemes.
    iv.              Gram Panchayat level Paani Samiti/Village Water & Sanitation Committee (VWSC)/ User group
  • The committee will be headed by SarpanchUp-SarpanchGram Panchayat member/ traditional village head/ senior village leader.
 Challenges Impeding the 2024 Har Ghar Jal Goal Goal: 
  • Russia-Ukraine war: It resulted in “major shortages of steel and cement, critical to the manufacture and connection of metal pipes”.
  • Lack of Skilled Manpower: The lack of skilled manpower to make acceptable quality tanks, cisterns and water connections is also a major issue.
  • Caste Based Discrimination:  A research study by the National Dalit Watch titled, “Droughts, Dalits and Adivasis”, in 2022 surveyed Marathwada’s 2,207 Dalits and Adivasis of 10 villages of Osmanabad and Kallam blocks.
    • The study found that 72% did not have adequate water for drinking and hygiene, while 56% SCs and 48% STs reported experiencing untouchability.
  • Poor Water Quality: Local reports suggest that despite having a tap connection, several village households revert to their local groundwater resources as the quality of supplied tap water is inadequate.
  • Infrastructure and Connectivity: Many rural areas lack proper infrastructure and connectivity, making it challenging to establish functional household tap connections (FHTCs) for water supply.
  • Technical Expertise: Implementing modern water supply technologies requires skilled personnel, and there can be a shortage of technical expertise at the local level.
Way Forward:
  • Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs): Explore opportunities for PPPs to leverage private sector expertise and resources for efficient implementation and maintenance of water supply systems.
  • Financial Sustainability: Develop a sustainable financing model that combines government funding, community contributions, user fees, and other revenue sources to ensure the ongoing operation and maintenance of water supply infrastructure.
  • Institutional Strengthening: Strengthen local governance institutions responsible for water supply management, ensuring their capacity to plan, implement, and manage systems effectively.
Jal Jeevan Mission (Urban):
  • Objective: To provide universal coverage of water supply to all households through functional taps in all 4,378 statutory towns in accordance with Sustainable Development Goal- 6.
    • Sustainable Development Goal 6 deals with “clean water and sanitation for all”.

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