Indigenous production of Pulses

Table of Contents

Context
As per the information India is building its pulses production capacity as compared to Edible oils, which both are the significantly import-dependent goods.
About
  • The reduction in pulses imports have come essentially on the back of higher domestic production.
  • According to the Agriculture Ministry, India’s pulses output has increased from 19.26 mt in 2013-14 to 27.50 mt in 2022-23.
  • Private trade estimates of production are lower at 23-24 mt.
  • Even taking 23 mt production and 2.5 mt imports translates into an atmanirbharta or self-sufficiency ratio of over 90% in pulses, as against hardly 40% for edible oils.
Pulses imports vs. Edible Oils:
  • Major pulses that are grown in India: Tur, urad, moong, masur, peas and gram.
  • Chief Characteristics:
  • Pulses are the major sources of protein in a vegetarian diet.
  • Being leguminous crops, all the above-mentioned pulses (except tur) help in restoring soil fertility by fixing nitrogen from the air.
  • Pulses need less moisture and survive even in dry conditions.
  • Important Producing Areas: The major pulse producing areas are Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Karnataka. It is grown on about 11% of the total sown area in India.
  • India is largest producer and consumer: India is the largest producer as well as consumer of pulses in the world.
  • About 25% of the pulses of the world are produced here.
  • Yellow/white peas – imported mainly from Canada, Russia, Ukraine and Lithuania – are basically a substitute for chana.
  • India’s total imports of edible oils surged to a record Rs. 1.17 lakh crore in 2020-21 marketing year.
  • More than half of India’s edible oil consumption is imported; India’s dependence on edible oil imports is to the tune of 65%.
  • Sunflower oil accounts for 14% of all edible oil imports
  • India imports 25 lakh tonnes of sunflower oil annually, of which 70% comes from Ukraine and 20% from Russia.
  • India imports palm oil from Indonesia and Malaysia, while Soyabean oil comes from Brazil and Argentina.
  • In 2019, edible oils accounted for 40% of agriculture import bills and 3% of overall import bill of the country.
  • Palm Oil (62%) > Soya oil (21%) > Sunflower oil (16%).
Government Initiatives:
  • To increase the production of pulses the National Food Security Mission-Pulses programme is being implemented in 644 districts of 28 States and Union Territories (UTs) of Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh.
Under NFSM-Pulses, incentives are given to the farmer for cluster demonstration, seeds distribution & production of certified seeds of High Yielding Varieties (HYVs), farm machineries/tools, and efficient water saving devices, plant protection chemicals, nutrient management, soil ameliorants and training to the farmers.

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