State of India’s Environment 2023

Context
On the occasion of World Environment Day celebrated on June 5, Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) has released their annual compendium of data “State of India’s Environment 2023”. Key highlights of the report:
  • About:
    • The report offers statistics on the state of climate and extreme weather, health, food and nutrition, migration and displacement, agriculture, energy, waste, water and biodiversity.
  • In terms of Progress in various parameters:
    • For overall environmental performanceTelangana ranked at the top for its progress in increasing its forest cover and in municipal waste treatment.
    • However, the state has performed below average in parameters such as “share of water bodies not in use”, “stage of groundwater extraction” and “change in number of polluted river stretches”.
  • Gujarat, Goa and Maharashtra followed Telangana.
    • The bottom rank was occupied by Rajasthan, Nagaland and Bihar.
    • The bottom-ranked 10 states include six from the northeast, including Assam.
  • In agriculture:
    • Madhya Pradesh takes the top slot for the highest share of net value added, and its jump in food grain production.
    • Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Uttar Pradesh feature on the second, third and fourth spots.
    • The bottom is populated by Delhi, Goa and Meghalaya, among others.
  • In Health:
    • Delhi leads in public health — it has allocated the highest share of its budget to health and boasts of a robust network of healthcare facilities. It, however, has a low immunisation rate.
  • Sikkim, Goa and Mizoram follow Delhi.
    • Madhya Pradesh, which is at the bottom, has a high incidence of maternal mortality ratio and infant mortality rate.
    • Chhattisgarh, Assam and Uttar Pradesh also range in the bottom half.
  • In public infrastructure and human development:
    • Gujarat leads the rankings in this category and it makes the cut for its performance in providing employment and tap water connections.
  • Other Findings:
    • The average life expectancy of an Indian is likely to have shortened by four years and 11 months due to air pollution in 2020.
    • In 2020-21, India generated over 160,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste a day.
  • Rural average life expectancy cut short by five years and two months. The life expectancy of their urban counterparts is nine months longer.
    • In 2022, India experienced extreme weather events on 314 of the 365 days.
About the World Environment Day:
  • World Environment Day is an annual global event celebrated on June 05.
  • It is observed to raise awareness on the protection and preservation of the environment.
  • History:
    • The history of World Environment Day can be traced back to 1972 when the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment was held in Stockholm.
    • As a result of this conference, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) was established on June 15, 1972.
  • Theme for World Environment Day 2023:
    • The theme of the WED 2023 is “BeatPlasticPollution”.

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