India-US Strategic Partnership

Why in News?

The Indian Prime Minister embarked on a significant visit to the United States of America.
  • The visit aimed to strengthen the strategic partnership between the two countries and focused on addressing common challenges, taking a stand on global issues, collaborating in critical emerging technologies, promoting sustainable development, and transitioning towards clean energy. 

What are the Areas of Corporation Highlighted During the Visit?

  • Strengthening Semiconductor Supply Chains: Micron Technology, with support from the India Semiconductor Mission, will invest in a new semiconductor assembly and test facility in India.
    • Applied Materials will establish a Semiconductor Centre for Commercialization and Innovation in India to enhance the diversification of the semiconductor supply chain.
    • Lam Research will train 60,000 Indian engineers through its “Semiverse Solution” to accelerate India’s semiconductor education and workforce development goals.
  • Advanced Telecommunications: India and the US have established public-private Joint Task Forces on the development and deployment of Open RAN systems and advanced telecoms research and development.
    • Bharat 6G from India and the US Next G Alliance will co-lead the public-private research, aiming to reduce costs, enhance security, and improve the resiliency of telecommunication networks.
Note: Open RAN, also known as Open Radio Access Network, is a concept and approach to designing and implementing radio access networks in telecommunications. It aims to introduce greater openness, flexibility, and interoperability into traditional RAN architectures by decoupling hardware and software components and promoting multi-vendor integration.
  • NASA-ISRO Collaboration in Space: India has signed the Artemis Accords, joining 26 other countries committed to peaceful, sustainable, and transparent cooperation for space exploration.
    • NASA will provide advanced training to Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) astronauts, with the goal of a joint effort to the International Space Station in 2024.
    • A strategic framework for human spaceflight cooperation between NASA and ISRO is being developed by the end of 2023.
  • Quantum, Advanced Computing, and Artificial Intelligence: The Joint Indo-US Quantum Coordination Mechanism has been established to facilitate joint research on quantum technology, Artificial Intelligence (AI), and advanced wireless technologies.
    • Joint collaboration on trustworthy and responsible AI, including generative AI, will promote AI education, workforce initiatives, and commercial opportunities.
    • India’s leadership as Chair of the Global Partnership on AI was commended, and Google’s investment in Indian startups and AI research centre was appreciated.
  • Fibre Optics Investments: Sterlite Technologies Limited from India has invested USD 100 million in constructing a optical fibre cable manufacturing unit near Columbia, South Carolina, facilitating USD 150 million in annual exports of optical fiber from India.
  • Cutting-edge Research: The US National Science Foundation has joint research collaborations with India’s Department of Science and Technology.
    • A cooperative arrangement has been signed with India’s Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology to promote emerging technologies.
  • Innovation Handshake: The US-India Commercial Dialogue will launch an “Innovation Handshake” to connect the startup ecosystems of both countries, supporting the US-India Initiative on Critical and Emerging Technology (iCET).
  • Critical Minerals Partnership: India has become the newest partner of the US-led Minerals Security Partnership (MSP), focused on developing diverse and sustainable critical energy minerals supply chains globally.
    • Epsilon Carbon Limited, an Indian company, will invest in a greenfield electric vehicle battery component factory in the US.
  • Defense Partnership: A groundbreaking proposal has been welcomed to co-produce GE’s F414 combat aircraft engines in India, allowing for greater transfer of US jet engine technology.
    • India intends to procure armed MQ-9B SeaGuardian UAVs from General Atomics to enhance intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance capabilities.
    • Agreements have been reached for service and repair of US Navy ships at Indian shipyards, fostering closer cooperation.
      • Master Ship Repair Agreements with Indian shipyards will expedite contracting processes for mid-voyage and emergent repair.
    • The India-US Defence Acceleration Ecosystem (INDUS-X) has been inaugurated, fostering joint innovation on defence technologies and integrating India’s private sector defence industry with the US defence sector.
    • The adoption of a Defense Industrial Cooperation Roadmap will provide policy direction for defence industries.
      • The roadmap aims to enable co-production of advanced defence systems and collaborative research, testing, and prototyping.

Note:

  • India and US have four foundational defence agreements:
    • Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement for Geospatial Intelligence (BECA).
    • General Security of Military Information Agreement (GSOMIA).
    • Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA).
    • Communication Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA).
  • Fighting Terror and Drugs: The US and India stand united in countering global terrorism, condemning terrorism and violent extremism in all forms.
    • Emphasis is placed on taking action against UN listed terrorist groups and urging Pakistan to prevent the use of its territory for launching attacks.
    • A counternarcotics framework will be developed to disrupt the production and trafficking of illicit drugs, including synthetic drugs and precursors.
  • Cooperation in the Indo-Pacific: The US will join the Indo-Pacific Oceans Initiative, promoting a safe, secure, and stable maritime domain and regional coordination.
    • India will continue to participate as an observer in the Partners in the Blue Pacific.
    • A Indian Ocean Dialogue will be held, bringing together experts and stakeholders to enhance regional coordination.
  • Strengthening and Reforming the Multilateral System: Both countries supported a comprehensive UN reform agenda, including expansion of the UN Security Council’s permanent and non-permanent membership.
    • The U.S. endorsed India’s permanent membership on a reformed UN Security Council and India’s candidature as a non-permanent member for the 2028-29 term.
  • Initiatives on Healthcare: Collaboration between US and Indian scientists will be fostered through grants to develop AI-enabled digital pathology platforms and AI-based automated radiotherapy treatment for cancer.
    • Agreements will be signed to further research on diabetes, and a US-India Cancer Dialogue will be hosted to accelerate progress against cancer.
  • Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI) for Inclusive Development:
    • Recognizing the potential of DPI approaches, both countries aim to provide global leadership in promoting inclusive development, competitive markets, and protecting individual rights.
      • Collaboration will be pursued to develop and deploy robust DPIs, with safeguards for privacy, data security, and intellectual property.
    • Exploring the establishment of an India-U.S. Global Digital Development Partnership to enable DPI development and deployment in developing countries.
  • Strengthening India-U.S. Trade and Investment Partnership:
    • Bilateral trade exceeds USD 191 billion in 2022, with a focus on greater engagement and technical cooperation in emerging technologies, clean energy, and pharmaceuticals.
    • Harmonisation of standards and regulations, lowering barriers to trade and investment, and promoting an innovative digital economy.
    • Resolution of outstanding WTO disputes and market access issues,with further engagement through the India-U.S. Trade Policy Forum.
    • Exploring restoration of India’s status under the U.S. Generalised System of Preferences programand recognition as a Trade Agreements Act-designated country.
  • Sustainable Development:Collaborative efforts between India and the US will continue to achieve national climate and energy goals, including co-leading the Hydrogen Breakthrough Agenda.
    • Innovative investment platforms will becreated to attract international private finance for renewable energy, battery storage, and emerging green technology projects in India.
      • The U.S. Agency for International Development will support Indian Railways’ target to become a “net-zero” carbon emitter by 2030.
    • Initiatives are in place to decarbonize the transportation sector and promote biofuels. 
  • People-Centric Efforts:
    • Initiatives have been taken to simplify visa renewals for certain petition-based temporary work visas, benefiting Indian nationals and reducing the need to leave the country for renewal.
    • Plans are underway to open new consulates in Bengaluru and Ahmedabad,fostering closer diplomatic ties.
    • Student exchanges and scholarships have been enhanced, with a record number of visas issued to Indian students, and increased opportunities for US undergraduate students to study or intern in India.
      • The Leaders welcomed the establishment of the Tamil Studies Chair at the University of Houstonand reinstating the Vivekananda Chair at the University of Chicago to further research and teaching of India’s history and culture.

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