UPSC Prelims Syllabus 2024, UPSC IAS Prelims Syllabus PDF For GS and CSAT

Table of Contents

UPSC Prelims Syllabus

UPSC Prelims Syllabus: The Civil Services Exam is conducted annually by the Union Public Service Commission, with UPSC Prelims serving as the initial screening stage. Although officially designated as the Civil Services (Preliminary) exam, candidates commonly refer to it as UPSC Prelims or IAS Prelims. As for the UPSC 2024 Prelims exam, it is set to take place on May 26, 2024. Therefore, prospective candidates can start preparing accordingly. Despite the change in the exam pattern in 2011, the syllabus has remained the same ever since. It is worth noting that the conducting authority has already announced the exam date for the upcoming UPSC recruitment, with the prelims taking place on May 28, 2023. The Union Public Service Commission releases the UPSC Prelims Syllabus along with the UPSC Notification PDF every year, which was released on February 1, 2023, for the UPSC 2023 exam. The UPSC Prelims Syllabus 2024 is a comprehensive guide that covers the areas and topics of the UPSC CSE examination. Aspirants can identify the necessary news articles by studying the syllabus in detailed information, and current affairs needed. UPSC aspirants who want to excel in the civil service exams must be familiar with the UPSC Syllabus. Previous IAS exam toppers all share an adherence to the syllabus. UPSC Prelims Result 2023

UPSC Prelims Syllabus 2024 Overview

UPSC Exam 2024, conducted by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) in India, is known for its prestige and competitiveness. The exam comprises three stages, namely Prelims, Mains, and Interview. Prelims stage has two papers, namely General Studies (GS) Paper-I and CSAT Paper-II, while the Mains stage includes nine papers covering various topics such as Essay, General Studies, and optional subjects. The Interview stage evaluates candidates’ personality, communication skills, and overall suitability for administrative roles. The exam aims to recruit the best candidates for top positions in the Indian Administrative Service (IAS), Indian Police Service (IPS), and other central services. Below is the overview of UPSC Prelims Syllabus 2024:

UPSC IAS Prelims Syllabus 2024 Overview

UPSC Prelims 2024 Exam Date May 26, 2024
No. of Papers Two
  • Paper 1: General Studies
  • Paper 2: CSAT
Types of Questions Objective Type (MCQs)
Duration of Exam 2 hours (120 minutes) for both Paper 1 and Paper 2
Total Marks 400
Medium of Exam Bilingual (English & Hindi)
Negative Marking  One-third
Nature of Examination Qualifying for Mains Eligibility

UPSC IAS Prelims Syllabus

The UPSC Prelims syllabus can be divided into two parts:

  • General Studies Paper I
  • CSAT or General Studies Paper-II
UPSC IAS Prelims Syllabus 2024 Max. Marks  Exam Duration
General Studies Paper – I 
  • Updates on significant national and international affairs.
  • The past of India and the freedom struggle of India.
  • Physical, social, and economic geography of India and the globe.
  • Constitutional arrangements, political structure, Panchayati Raj, public policies, human rights matters, and other relevant topics on Indian government and governance.
  • Sustainable development, poverty, inclusion, demographics, social sector activities, and so on for economic and social development.
  • Environmental ecology, biodiversity, and climate change are general concerns that do not require expert knowledge.
  • Basic science topics.
200 marks 2 Hours
CSAT/ General Studies Paper-II 
  • Understanding and applying interpersonal skills, such as communication
  • Utilizing logical reasoning and analytical skills
  • Making effective decisions and solving problems
  • Demonstrating overall mental aptitude
  • Performing basic numerical computations (e.g. understanding numbers, orders of magnitude) at a Class X level
  • Interpreting data, such as charts, graphs, and tables, and determining sufficiency at a Class X level
200 marks 2 Hours

UPSC IAS Exam And UPSC Prelims Syllabus 2024

  • The official website of the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) released the UPSC 2024 Calendar on 10 May 2023.
  • The calendar consists of important dates and events such as application form release, exam date, notification, etc. for all the exams conducted by UPSC.
  • The Civil Services Examination (CSE) is an extremely competitive exam conducted annually by UPSC in three stages – Preliminary, Mains, and Interview.
  • Candidates who succeed in passing all three stages of the UPSC 2024 exam will be eligible for various civil service positions in India, with the highest scorers being selected for IAS, IPS, IFS, IRS, and other prestigious services.
  • The Union Commission will release the UPSC 2024 notification on 14 February 2024, and the last date for online applications will be 05 March.
  • Aspirants who wish to clear UPSC must have a thorough understanding of various topics including current affairs, history, geography, economics, science and technology, social issues, and more. Due to the high level of difficulty, candidates are advised to start preparing well in advance for UPSC 2024, because it is considered one of the toughest exams in India.
The UPSC IAS Examination Syllabus differs for different stages. The UPSC Syllabus for Prelims Exam is comprised of two papers: General Studies Paper 1 and General Studies Paper 2. UPSC Prelims 2023 exam took place on May 28, 2023. Please refer to the table given below for more detailed information regarding the Prelims UPSC Syllabus. The process of selecting the right candidates for the prestigious services requires an examination of many qualities and aspects of the candidates from the millions of applicants.

UPSC IAS Prelims 2024 Exam Pattern

The UPSC Prelims Exam comprises two papers: General Studies (GS) Paper-I and Civil Services Aptitude Test (CSAT) Paper-II. It is conducted offline (pen and paper-based) and has a duration of two hours each. GS Paper-I consists of 100 multiple-choice questions, while CSAT Paper-II contains 80 multiple-choice questions. GS Paper-I evaluates candidates’ knowledge in subjects such as current affairs, history, geography, polity, economics, science and technology, and environment and ecology. CSAT Paper-II assesses candidates’ abilities in comprehension, logical reasoning, analytical thinking, decision-making, and problem-solving skills. The Prelims Exam serves as a screening test, and only those who clear it are eligible to appear for the Mains Exam. The following table represents the Exam Pattern for UPSC IAS Prelims 2024 Syllabus:

UPSC IAS Prelims 2024 Exam Pattern

Paper Subject of UPSC Prelims Total Marks Number of Questions Duration of Exam
I General Studies (GS) 200 100 2 hours
II CSAT 200 80 2 hours
1. Each incorrect answer will result in a deduction of 1/3 marks, while no marks will be deducted for unanswered questions. 2. In the General Studies (Paper I) section, candidates will receive 2 marks for each correct answer and 0.66 marks will be deducted for each incorrect answer. 3. For the CSAT (Paper II) section, candidates will be awarded 2.5 marks for every correct answer, and 0.833 marks will be deducted for each incorrect answer marked by the candidates. 4. The marks obtained in the Prelims exam will not be taken into account when calculating the final result or merit list. 5. Paper II of the Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination serves as a qualifying paper, with a minimum passing score set at 33%. 6. The General Studies exam takes place in the morning session, while the CSAT exam is held in the evening session on the same day.

UPSC Prelims 2024 GS and CSAT

  • The first paper of the preliminary examination is called the General Studies test. Its purpose is to evaluate a candidate’s general knowledge in various subjects such as Indian Polity, Geography, History, Indian Economy, Science and Technology, Environment and Ecology, International Relations, and current affairs related to the UPSC (Union Public Service Commission).
  • The Civil Services Aptitude Test (CSAT) is typically conducted between 2:30 PM and 04:30 PM.
  • The CSAT syllabus for the UPSC Prelims aims to assess the candidate’s aptitude in solving ‘Reasoning and Analytical’ questions, as well as their proficiency in ‘Reading Comprehension’ and occasionally ‘Decision Making’ questions.
  • Questions based on ‘Decision Making’ usually do not have negative marking.

UPSC Prelims 2024 Syllabus

  • The UPSC Prelims Syllabus consists of two multiple choice papers, which are General Studies Paper I and CSAT.
  • It is crucial for candidates to keep in mind that CSAT is a qualifying paper, and they must achieve a minimum score of 33% to progress to the next stage.
  • The UPSC Prelims Syllabus PDF in Hindi & English can be downloaded by applicants.
  • The purpose of the UPSC CSAT Syllabus is to evaluate the analytical and reasoning skills of candidates.
  • The syllabus of CSAT includes topics such as comprehension, interpersonal skills including communication, analytical ability, logical reasoning, problem-solving and decision-making, basic numeracy, general mental ability, and data interpretation.
  • In the UPSC 2024 Mains, candidates must choose one subject out of the 48 optional subjects on offer, with each paper carrying 250 marks and a total of 500 marks.
There are 25 subjects related to various fields and 23 subjects related to literature. Applicants can refer to the list of optional subjects available for UPSC 2024 in the table provided.

UPSC Prelims Syllabus Subject wise

The UPSC CSE syllabus comprises three stages: Preliminary, Mains, and Interview. The preliminary exam consists of two papers of objective type questions, while the mains exam comprises nine descriptive papers, and the interview round is a personality test.

UPSC IAS Prelims Syllabus For GS Paper 1

Let us focus on the UPSC Prelims Syllabus for GS I, i.e., the General Studies Paper I. This examination paper is composed of subjects such as History, Geography, Economy, Polity, Governance, General Science, and importantly, Current Affairs. We have listed the subtopics below for your perusal.

UPSC Prelims Current Affairs Syllabus

In recent years, the UPSC Prelims and Mains exams have placed a greater emphasis on dynamic questions. Even traditionally static subjects such as Polity now incorporate more current issues and topics. Both Indian Economy and Environment are also vital aspects of the UPSC Prelims syllabus that primarily focus on current affairs. To prepare for current affairs, several essential sources can be used, including magazines such as Yojana and Kurukshetra, Economic and Political Weekly, and Press Information Bureau Releases. Additionally, staying up to date with news from publications like The Hindu and The Indian Express is crucial. For UPSC Prelims current affairs studies, there are helpful resources available, including comprehensive daily news analyses, summaries of Yojana and EPW, and daily video analyses of The Hindu. Furthermore, “Economy This Week for UPSC Preparation” covers all aspects of the Indian economy that may appear in the exam.

UPSC Prelims History Syllabus

The UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) conducts the Civil Services Examination in India, which includes the Preliminary Examination (Prelims), Main Examination, and the Personality Test (Interview). The Prelims examination has two papers: General Studies Paper-I and General Studies Paper-II (CSAT). Here is the syllabus for the history portion of the UPSC Prelims examination: Ancient History: Ancient history holds a significant place in the UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) examination, which is one of the most prestigious competitive exams in India. The study of ancient history in the UPSC syllabus provides valuable insights into the rich cultural, social, political, and economic developments of ancient civilizations. It covers a vast span of time, ranging from the prehistoric period to the medieval era, encompassing civilizations such as the Indus Valley Civilization, Vedic Age, Mauryan Empire, Gupta Empire, and many others. Understanding ancient history not only helps in comprehending the roots of our society but also enables candidates to analyze the continuity and change in historical processes.
  1. Prehistoric period
  2. Indus Valley Civilization
  3. Vedic Period d. Mahajanapadas
  4. Mauryan Empire
  5. Post-Mauryan Period (Guptas, Satavahanas, Kushanas, etc.)
  6. Sangam Age
  7. Guptas and their successors
  8. Medieval History:
  9. Sultanate Period
  10. Vijayanagara and Bahmani Kingdoms
  11. Mughal Empire
  12. Advent of Europeans
  13. Bhakti and Sufi movements
  14. Marathas and other regional powers
Medieval Indian History Medieval Indian history covers a vast period of time from the early Middle Ages until the decline of the Mughal Empire. During the early Middle Ages, major dynasties and political systems emerged, and the country witnessed significant agrarian organization. The status of women and the extent of social mobility became pressing issues during this time.
  1. The Arab invasion of Sind and the Ghaznavids’ conquest of India.
  2. The significance of temples, monastic institutions, Sankaracharya, Sufism. Art and architecture also flourished, as did literature and science.
  3. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the Ghorian invasions impacted India significantly. Delhi Sultanate was established.
  4. The 15th and early 16th centuries saw the emergence of key provincial dynasties and the Vijayanagara Empire. The Lodhis ruled the Delhi Sultanate, and the first stage of the Mughal Empire began to take shape.
  5. The Mughal Empire emerged as a dominant force, with Akbar leading a significant invasion that introduced administrative measures and measures like the Policy of Sulh-I-Kul. The Jagir and Mansab systems were established, and Jahangir, Shahjahan, and Aurangzeb played significant roles in extending the Mughal Empire’s reach.
  6. Shivaji was an important figure during this time, and literature, architecture, painting, and economy also experienced major changes. The state of peasants and artisans, trade escalation, and social stratification and the position of women all became pressing issues.
  7. The decline of the Mughal Empire was marked by the rise of Maratha power under the Peshwas, the Afghans, and regional states. Composite culture emerged as the most important component of this time period, and Sawai Jai Singh was a noted astronomer. The Urdu language also began to rise during this time.
Modern History Modern history is a crucial component of the UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) examination, which is one of the most prestigious competitive exams in India. The study of modern history in the UPSC syllabus focuses on the socio-political, economic, and cultural developments that occurred from the 18th century onwards. It encompasses significant events, movements, and personalities that have shaped the course of Indian history during the colonial era, the struggle for independence, and the post-independence period. Exploring modern history equips candidates with a comprehensive understanding of India’s journey towards freedom, the impact of British colonial rule, the emergence of nationalist movements, and the challenges faced during the process of nation-building.
  1. Arrival of Europeans and the establishment of British rule
  2. Revolt of 1857 (First War of Independence)
  3. Socio-religious reform movements
  4. Indian National Congress and the freedom struggle
  5. Partition of India and Independence
  6. Post-Independence India
World History World history is an integral part of the UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) examination, which is one of the most prestigious competitive exams in India. The study of world history in the UPSC syllabus explores significant global events, civilizations, and interactions that have shaped the world as we know it today.
  1. Renaissance and Reformation
  2. Industrial Revolution
  3. World Wars (I and II)
  4. Cold War and the Non-Aligned Movement
  5. Decolonization and the emergence of new nations
  6. Important events and developments in world history

UPSC Prelims Geography Syllabus

Indian and World Geography is a vital subject in the UPSC examination. It covers diverse topics like physical geography, human geography, economic geography, and regional geography. Candidates learn about the physical features, climate, vegetation, natural resources, and population distribution in India and across the world. Understanding these aspects is essential for analyzing socio-economic development, environmental challenges, and regional planning.

1. Introduction to India:

  • Location, latitude, longitude, and time zone of India
  • Neighboring countries, States and their positions, including states with international boundaries
  • Important straits in India

2. Physical Features of India

2.1 The Himalayas
  • Geological formation of the Himalayas
  • Physiographic divisions of the Himalayas
  • Major passes and their significance
  • Recent issues related to the Himalayas
2.2 The Great North Indian Plains
  • Geological formation of the plains
  • Physiographic divisions of the plains
  • Climate, vegetation, soil, and biodiversity of the plains
  • Significance of the Great North Indian Plains
2.3 Peninsular Plateau
  • Geological formation of the peninsular plateau
  • Divisions of the peninsular plateau (Deccan plateau, Central Highlands, Western and Eastern Ghats)
  • Socio-economic issues related to the peninsular plateau
2.4 Indian Desert
  • Characteristics of the Indian Desert
  • Climate, vegetation, soil, and biodiversity of the desert region
2.5 Coastal Plains and Islands
  • Description of coastal plains and islands in India

3. River Systems in India

  • Characteristics, comparison, and significance of Himalayan rivers and peninsular rivers
  • River basins in India
  • Major dams, hydro-power projects, and power plants

4. Regional Development and Planning

  • Initiatives for regional development and planning in India
  • Issues and challenges related to regional development

5. Climate in India

  • Monsoon and its driving mechanism
  • Effects of La Niña and El Niño on the Indian climate
  • Recent theories related to climate in India

6. Seasons of India

  • Description of different seasons in India

7. Cyclones

  • Information about cyclones in India, including tropical and temperate cyclones
  • Formation, characteristics, and impact of cyclones

8. Minerals and Industries

  • Distribution of minerals in India
  • Industrial policies and location factors
  • Issues and challenges faced by industries
  • Industrial clusters in India

9. Agriculture and Allied Sectors

  • Characteristics and problems related to agriculture in India
  • Land utilization and types of agricultural practices
  • Soils, crops, and trends in agriculture (Green Revolution)
  • Irrigation and major irrigation projects
  • Land reforms, government policies, and schemes
  • Animal husbandry and livestock resources

10. Natural Vegetation and Fauna

  • Classification and importance of natural vegetation
  • Comparison and significance of flora and fauna
  • Rainfall distribution and wildlife sanctuaries in India
  • National Forest Policy, biosphere reserves, national parks
  • Environmental issues and red-listed species in recent news

11. Economic Infrastructure

  • Transportation infrastructure, including roads, railways, airways, and waterways
  • Power and energy sector, conventional and non-conventional energy sources
  • Energy conservation, recent developments, and crises

12. Human Geography

  • Demographics of India, including recent census data
  • World geography and physical geography

World Geography & Physical Geography

The World Geography & Physical Geography syllabus in the UPSC examination focuses on studying the physical features, climate patterns, natural resources, and geographical characteristics of different regions across the globe. Aspirants gain insights into the landforms, climatic zones, ecosystems, and their impact on human activities. This knowledge helps in understanding global interrelationships, environmental issues, and socio-economic development on a worldwide scale.

Universe and Earth

1. Theories related to the Solar System

  • Theories about the formation of the Solar System
  • Recent updates on the same

2. The Earth

  • Basic information about the Earth
  • Earth’s motion (rotation and revolution)
  • Latitude, longitude, and the Earth’s inclination
  • Solar and lunar eclipses, tides, and their significance

3. Geomorphology

  • Earth’s movement (exo-genetic and endo-genetic processes)
  • Earthquakes and volcanic activity
  • Continental Drift Theory, Plate Tectonics Theory, and Sea Floor Spreading
  • Interior of the Earth, lithosphere, boundaries

4. Mass Movements, Erosion, and Deposits

  • Explanation of mass movements of landforms
  • Overview of erosion processes and their effects
  • Deposition and its role in shaping landforms

5. Geographical Landforms and their Significance

  • Introduction to various landforms and their importance
  • Explanation of the significance of different landforms

6. Rock System and Classification of Rocks

  • Overview of the rock system and its components
  • Classification of rocks based on their characteristics and formation

7. Climatology

  • Structure and composition of the atmosphere
  • Factors influencing temperature distribution
  • Insolation (solar radiation) and terrestrial radiation
  • Heat budget and its role in climate
  • Global warming and the ozone layer
  • Humidity, condensation, and cloud formation
  • Classification of clouds
  • Precipitation and its mechanism
  • Different types and forms of precipitation

8. Pressure Belts and Atmospheric Circulation

  • Explanation of pressure belts and their significance
  • Overview of atmospheric circulation patterns
  • Winds and their types (planetary, seasonal, and local winds)
  • Cyclones (tropical and temperate) – formation, characteristics, and impact
  • Jet streams and their influence on weather patterns
  • Various atmospheric phenomena

9. The Hydrosphere

  • Bottom relief of the ocean and its features
  • Salinity and temperature variations in the ocean
  • Ocean currents and their impact on climate
  • Ocean deposits and their significance
  • Ocean resources and their utilization
  • Recent issues and developments in oceanography (e.g., UNCLOS)

10. Biosphere

  • Major biomes and their characteristics
  • Flora and fauna diversity in different ecosystems
  • International organizations working for biodiversity conservation
  • Conservation of biodiversity and its importance
  • Recent issues related to the biosphere

11. Economic Geography

  • Overview of economic geography and its relevance
  • Map work related to economic geography
  • Introduction to places in the news and their significance in economic activities

UPSC Prelims Polity Syllabus and Governance

The Indian Polity and Governance syllabus for the UPSC examination covers various aspects of the Constitution, political system, public policy, rights issues, and Panchayati Raj. Aspirants are expected to have a thorough understanding of the Constitution of India, including its historical background, salient features, and key provisions. The syllabus also includes important constitutional bodies, non-constitutional bodies, emergency provisions, inter-state relations, and the functioning of local self-government institutions.

1. Preamble

  • Features of the preamble
  • 42nd Amendment and its significance
  • Swaran Singh Committee and its recommendations

2. Schedules

  • Overview of the 12 schedules in the Constitution
  • Understanding the purpose and significance of each schedule

3. Constitution of India

  • Basic understanding of all articles in the Constitution
  • Historical background and the role of the drafting committee
  • Influence of other constitutions on the Indian Constitution
  • Salient features of the Indian Constitution

4. Union and its Territory

  • Understanding Article 1-4 and its implications
  • State reorganization and the role of different commissions
  • Federal nature of the Indian political system
  • Recent issues related to the union and its territory

5. Citizenship

  • Overview of Articles 5-11 related to citizenship
  • Distinction between PIO, NRI, OCI, and Pravasi Bharatiya Divas
  • Privileges available for Indian citizens and foreigners
  • Citizenship Amendment Act of 2016 and its implications
  • Recent policies, schemes, and changes in voting

6. Fundamental Rights (FR)

  • Understanding Article 12-35 related to fundamental rights
  • Detailed analysis of Articles 14-30 and Article 32
  • Rights and privileges for Indian citizens and foreigners
  • 44th Amendment Act and its impact
  • Different types of writs and their enforcement
  • Right to Education (RTE) and recent issues related to FR

7. Fundamental Duties (FD)

  • Introduction to Article 51A and fundamental duties
  • Comparison between fundamental rights and fundamental duties
  • Significance and criticism of fundamental duties
  • Enforcement of fundamental duties
  • Recent issues related to fundamental duties

8. Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP)

  • Overview of Article 36-51 and Article 368 related to DPSP
  • Sources and key features of DPSP
  • Classification of DPSP
  • Conflicts between fundamental rights and directive principles
  • Landmark cases related to DPSP (Keshavananda Bharathi, Minerva Mills, Golaknath, and Maneka Gandhi cases)
  • Important amendments related to DPSP

9. Union

  • Understanding Article 52-73 related to the Union
  • Qualification, election, and powers of the President
  • Role and responsibilities of the Prime Minister and Council of Ministers
  • Relationship between the President, Prime Minister, and Cabinet Ministers

10. Parliament

  • Overview of articles related to Parliament
  • Role and functions of the Parliament
  • Parliamentary procedures, sessions, and motions
  • Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha – composition and powers
  • Special powers of Rajya Sabha
  • Anti-defection law and the 10th Schedule
  • Parliamentary privileges
  • Bill and lawmaking procedure
  • Budget and parliamentary committees

11. Judiciary

  • Understanding articles related to the judiciary
  • Powers and functions of the Supreme Court and High Courts
  • Qualification, appointment, and removal of judges
  • Recent controversies, verdicts, and constitutional provisions related to the judiciary

12. State Government – State Executive

  • Governor – appointment, removal, and special powers
  • Executive, legislative, financial, and judicial powers of the Governor
  • Role and responsibilities of the Chief Minister and Council of Ministers

13. State Legislature

  • Comparison between state legislature and Parliament
  • Bicameral legislatures and creation/abolition of Legislative Councils

14. Administration of Union Territories (UT)

  • Special provisions for Delhi
  • Administration and jurisdiction in UTs
  • Administration of Special Areas
  • Overview of the 5th and 6th Schedules
  • Recent issues related to the administration of Special Areas

15. Special Provisions

  • Article 370 and its special provisions for Jammu and Kashmir
  • Differences between constitutional provisions related to Jammu and Kashmir

16. Emergency Provisions

  • National emergency (Article 352)
  • President’s rule or state emergency (Article 356)
  • Financial emergency (Article 360)
  • Effects and implications of emergencies
  • Role of the President during emergencies
  • Revoking emergency

17. State-Centre and Interstate Relations

  • Articles 262 and 263 related to state-centre and interstate relations
  • Composition and functions of the Interstate Council and Zonal Council
  • Inter-state trade and commerce
  • Recent disputes, controversies, and policies impacting interstate relations

18. Panchayati Raj and Municipalities

  • Elections, auditing, and powers of panchayats
  • 3-tier structure and the 73rd and 74th Amendment Acts
  • Relationship with fundamental rights and directive principles
  • Introduction of schemes
  • Metropolitan Planning Committee and urban development

19. Constitutional Bodies

  • Election Commission
  • Union Public Service Commission (UPSC)
  • State Public Service Commissions (SPSC)
  • Finance Commission
  • National Commission for SCs and STs
  • Composition, powers, functions, and removal of constitutional bodies

20. Non-Constitutional Bodies

  • Working and functions of non-constitutional bodies like National Human Rights Commission, Central Information Commission, Central Vigilance Commission, Central Bureau of Investigation, State Human Rights Commission, State Information Commission, etc.

21. Tribunals

  • Understanding Article 323A and tribunals under Article 323B
  • Recent controversial issues related to tribunals
  • Importance and functioning of different tribunals

22. Special Provisions for SCs, STs, Backward Classes, Marginalized Groups, and Anglo-Indians

  • Privileges and rights for these vulnerable sections
  • Issues related to women, children, SCs, STs, backward classes, marginalized groups, and Anglo-Indians

UPSC Prelims Economics Syllabus and Social Development  

The UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) Economic and Social Development syllabus is a significant part of the examination. It focuses on various aspects of sustainable development, poverty, inclusion, demographics, social sector initiatives, and more. Candidates are expected to have a sound understanding of current affairs related to the Indian economy, as well as basic economic concepts. The syllabus covers both static and dynamic elements, bridging the gap between the UPSC Prelims and Mains examinations. A thorough knowledge of economic and social development is crucial for comprehending policy-making, governance, and social issues in India.

 1. Sustainable Development

  • Understanding the concept of sustainable development
  • Environmental sustainability and economic growth
  • Sustainable development goals (SDGs) and their significance

2. Poverty and Inclusion

  • Measurement and indicators of poverty
  • Poverty alleviation programs and initiatives
  • Social inclusion and welfare schemes for marginalized sections
  • Role of government policies in poverty reduction

3. Demographics

  • Understanding demographic trends in India
  • Population growth and its implications
  • Age structure, sex ratio, and fertility rates
  • Migration and urbanization

4. Social Sector Initiatives

  • Government programs and policies in education, health, and other social sectors
  • Initiatives for skill development and employment generation
  • Women empowerment and gender equality programs
  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of society

5. Indian Economy (Common for Prelims and Mains)

  • Overview of the Indian economy – sectors, growth, and development
  • Economic planning in India
  • Role of agriculture, industry, and services sectors
  • Monetary and fiscal policies
  • International trade and economic relations

6. Current Affairs in Indian Economy (Prelims Focus)

  • Stay updated with recent developments in the Indian economy
  • Government initiatives, policies, and reforms
  • Key economic indicators and their trends
  • Major economic events and their impact

Optional Subject: Economics (Mains)

  • In-depth study of economic concepts, theories, and models
  • Microeconomics and macroeconomics
  • Economic systems and theories of development
  • Public finance and fiscal policy
  • Monetary theory and policy
  • International economics and trade theories
Note: Indian Economy portion is common to both Prelims and Mains, candidates choosing Economics as an optional subject for the Mains examination should study the subject in greater depth, covering a wide range of topics and theories beyond the scope of the Prelims syllabus.

UPSC Prelims General Science Syllabus

Candidates appearing for the UPSC civil services prelims exam are advised to prioritize current affairs and recent developments in General Science rather than spending excessive time on theoretical concepts. While most questions are derived from topics/issues in the news, the following focus areas can serve as a comprehensive reference. 1. Physics
  • Fundamental concepts and principles of physics
  • Laws of motion, gravitation, thermodynamics, and electricity
  • Optics, magnetism, and nuclear physics
  • Recent advancements and discoveries in physics
2. Chemistry
  • Basic principles of chemistry and chemical reactions
  • States of matter, atomic structure, and periodic table
  • Chemical bonding, acids and bases, and chemical equations
  • Organic and inorganic chemistry
  • Environmental chemistry and recent developments
3. Biology
  • Basic concepts of biology and life processes
  • Cell structure and functions, genetics, and evolution
  • Human anatomy, physiology, and health-related topics
  • Ecology, biodiversity, and environmental issues
  • Recent discoveries and advancements in biology
4. Environmental Science
  • Environmental issues and challenges
  • Ecosystems, biodiversity, and conservation
  • Pollution and its types
  • Climate change and global warming
  • Environmental laws and sustainable development
5. Science and Technology
  • Role of science and technology in society
  • Information and communication technology (ICT)
  • Space technology and applications
  • Biotechnology and its applications
  • Recent developments in science and technology
6. Recent Scientific Developments
  • Stay updated with recent scientific discoveries and breakthroughs
  • Important scientific missions and projects
  • Nobel Prizes in science
  • Science-related current affairs and news
Note: The focus for UPSC Prelims should be on fundamental concepts, basic principles, and recent developments in physics, chemistry, biology, environmental science, and science and technology. Stay updated with recent scientific developments and their implications.

UPSC Prelims CSAT Syllabus Paper 2 (Civil Services Aptitude Test)

The General Studies Paper-II that is included in the UPSC Preliminary exam is commonly known as the Civil Services Aptitude Test (CSAT). However, this examination has been surrounded by controversy ever since its introduction. A certain percentage of candidates have raised allegations that the CSAT is biased negatively towards them. In the year 2014-2015, the CSAT was clarified as a ‘Qualifying Exam,’ with a pass criteria of 33%. The objective of the GS II or CSAT is to evaluate the analytical abilities of individuals aspiring to become Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officers. For a comprehensive understanding of the CSAT, including its exam pattern, study materials, previous question papers, and strategies, you may refer to the article titled ‘CSAT 2024.’ 1. Comprehension 2. Interpersonal skills, including communication skills 3. Logical reasoning and analytical ability 4. Decision-making and problem-solving 5. General mental ability 6. Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude, etc.) 7. Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency, etc.)

UPSC Prelims Syllabus Preparation Strategy

Preparing for the UPSC Prelims requires a systematic and comprehensive approach. Here’s a preparation strategy to help you with the UPSC Prelims 2024 syllabus:

1. Familiarize yourself with the syllabus:

Start by thoroughly understanding the UPSC Prelims syllabus. It will give you a clear idea of the subjects and topics you need to cover.

2. Create a study plan:

Develop a well-structured study plan that covers all the subjects and topics in the syllabus. Allocate specific time slots for each subject, keeping in mind your strengths and weaknesses.

3. Gather study materials:

Collect the necessary study materials, including textbooks, reference books, UPSC previous years’ question papers, and relevant online resources. Make sure to rely on authentic and reliable sources.

4. Focus on current affairs:

Stay updated with current affairs from various sources such as newspapers, magazines, and online platforms. Dedicate a specific time each day to read and analyze current events, especially those related to national and international issues, government policies, and social issues.

5. Study subject-wise:

    • History: Cover Indian history from ancient to modern times. Focus on important events, personalities, and their contributions. Refer to NCERT books and other reliable sources for a comprehensive understanding.
    • Geography: Study both physical and human geography. Learn about the physical features of India and the world, climate patterns, population, agriculture, and major geographical phenomena.
    • Polity: Understand the Indian political system, Constitution, governance, and related topics. Read the Indian Polity by M. Laxmikanth and refer to NCERT books for a solid foundation.
    • Economy: Study basic economic concepts, economic development, government schemes, and current economic affairs. Refer to books like Indian Economy by Ramesh Singh and Economic Survey of India.
    • Science and Technology: Focus on recent advancements in science and technology, especially in the fields of space, biotechnology, information technology, and environment. Refer to NCERT textbooks and reliable science magazines.
    • Environment and Ecology: Study environmental concepts, biodiversity, climate change, conservation efforts, and related issues. Refer to NCERT books, reports by environmental organizations, and government initiatives.
    • General Knowledge: Develop a habit of reading newspapers, magazines, and books that cover a wide range of general knowledge topics. Make notes of important information for quick revision.

6. Practice mock tests and previous years’ papers:

Regularly solve mock tests and previous years’ question papers to gauge your preparation level. It will help you understand the exam pattern, improve your time management skills, and identify your strengths and weaknesses.

7. Revision and self-evaluation:

Set aside dedicated time for revision to reinforce your understanding of the topics. Make concise notes and mind maps to aid quick revision. Evaluate your progress regularly and work on improving weak areas.

8. Stay mentally and physically fit:

Take care of your health during the preparation phase. Maintain a balanced diet, exercise regularly, and get sufficient rest. Avoid burnout and manage stress by practicing relaxation techniques like meditation or yoga. UPSC Prelims Expected Cut Off 2023

UPSC Prelims Syllabus FAQs

Q1. What is the syllabus for UPSC Prelims 2024?

Ans. The syllabus for UPSC Prelims 2024 is similar to previous years and covers two broad categories: General Studies Paper-I and General Studies Paper-II (CSAT). General Studies Paper-I includes topics such as Indian History, Geography, Polity, Economy, Science and Technology, Environment, and Current Affairs. General Studies Paper-II (CSAT) focuses on comprehension, logical reasoning, analytical ability, decision making, problem-solving, data interpretation, and English language skills.

Q2. Are there any changes in the UPSC Prelims 2024 syllabus?

Ans. The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) usually announces any changes or updates to the syllabus on their official website. It is advisable to visit the UPSC website or refer to the latest official notification for the most accurate and up-to-date information on the syllabus.

Q3. How can I prepare for the UPSC Prelims 2024 syllabus?

Ans. To prepare for the UPSC Prelims 2024 syllabus, here are a few tips:
  • Familiarize yourself with the syllabus and exam pattern.
  • Create a study plan and allocate time for each subject/topic.
  • Gather relevant study materials, including standard textbooks, reference books, and current affairs magazines/newspapers.
  • Make concise notes while studying to aid revision.
  • Practice previous years’ question papers and take mock tests to improve time management and understand the exam pattern.
  • Stay updated with current affairs through newspapers, magazines, and reliable online sources.
  • Join a coaching institute or online platforms for guidance and access to study materials.
  • Regularly revise what you have studied to reinforce your knowledge.

Q4. How should I approach current affairs for the UPSC Prelims 2024?

Ans. Current affairs play a significant role in the UPSC Prelims exam. Here’s how you can approach current affairs preparation:
  • Read a reliable newspaper daily to stay updated on national and international events.
  • Follow reputable news websites, magazines, and online portals that cover current affairs.
  • Make notes on important current affairs topics and revise them regularly.
  • Pay attention to government schemes, policies, and initiatives.
  • Focus on issues related to Indian polity, economy, science and technology, environment, and social developments.
  • Practice solving multiple-choice questions (MCQs) based on current affairs to improve your understanding and retention.
  • Utilize monthly current affairs compilations or magazines specifically designed for UPSC exam preparation.

Q5. Is the UPSC Prelims syllabus subject-specific or interdisciplinary?

Ans. The UPSC Prelims syllabus is interdisciplinary in nature. It covers various subjects like Indian History, Geography, Polity, Economy, Science and Technology, Environment, and Current Affairs. The questions in the exam are designed to test candidates’ understanding of the interconnections between different subjects and their ability to apply knowledge across disciplines. It is essential to have a holistic approach to preparation and develop a comprehensive understanding of the topics rather than focusing on individual subjects in isolation.

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