Cauvery Water Sharing Issue
Context: The Tamil Nadu government sought the Supreme Court’s intervention to make Karnataka immediately release 24,000 cubic feet per second (cusecs) from its reservoirs. About Cauvery Water Dispute:
- Parties to Dispute: Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka and Puducherry
- Supreme court ruling on Cauvery water dispute:
- Allocating more water to Karnataka: Karnataka will supply 177.25 tmc instead of 192 tmc – a reduction of 14.75 tmc, from its Billigundlu site to Mettur dam in Tamil Nadu
- Directed the formation of the Cauvery Management Board (CMB)
- Allocation to Kerala and Puducherry was not changed.
- It deals with the adjudication of disputes relating to waters of inter-state rivers or river valleys, says:
- Parliament may by law provide for the adjudication of any dispute or complaint with respect to the use, distribution or control of the waters of, or in, any inter-state river or river valley.
- The resolution of water disputes is governed by the Inter-State River Water Disputes Act, 1956.
- According to its provisions, if a State Government makes a request regarding any water dispute and the Central Government is of opinion that the water dispute cannot be settled by negotiations, then a Water Disputes Tribunal is constituted for the adjudication of the water dispute.
- For Example: Mahanadi Water Disputes Tribunal
- Key Challenges:
- The dispute is complicated by factors such as changing rainfall patterns, population growth, agricultural demands, and urbanization.
- Balancing the water needs of multiple states and regions while considering ecological concerns adds to the complexity.
- Dispute Resolution Mechanism:
- The Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (CWDT) was constituted by the Government of India in 1990 to adjudicate the water dispute regarding inter-state river Cauvery and the river valley thereof.