Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)
Context: According to estimations by SIPRI, the size of China’s nuclear arsenal increased from 350 warheads in January 2022 to 410 in January 2023, and it is expected to keep growing.
News Source: The Hindu
Image Source: The HinduKey findings in SIPRI Yearbook 2023:
- Nuclear Arsenal Expansion in India and Pakistan:
- Both countries introduced and developed new types of nuclear delivery systems in 2022.
- India is focusing on longer-range weapons, including those capable of reaching targets in China.
- SIPRI estimates show an increase in nuclear arsenals: India from 160 to 164 warheads, Pakistan from 165 to 170 warheads.
- India’s Nuclear Upgrades and Policies:
- India follows a no-first-use policy for nuclear weapons.
- The nuclear triad is completed with two ballistic missile nuclear submarines.
- Upgrades in ballistic missiles include the development of a submarine-launched intermediate-range missile and the upcoming induction of the ‘Agni Prime’ ballistic missile with a range of 1,000 km-2,000 km.
- Global Nuclear Modernization Efforts:
- The nine nuclear-armed states —the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, India, Pakistan, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) and Israel—continue to modernise their nuclear arsenals.
- Several countries deployed new nuclear-armed or nuclear-capable weapon systems in 2022.
- China’s Nuclear Arsenal:
- China’s nuclear arsenal grew from 350 warheads in January 2022 to 410 warheads in January 2023, according to the SIPRI.
- China could potentially have at least as many Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) as either the U.S. or Russia by the turn of the decade.